Antibiotics are substances that are able to destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria and other similar organisms. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change and they no longer respond effectively to antibiotics that were initially used to treat infections they cause and therefore they continue to multiply and cause more harm.

There are several factors that contribute to antibiotic resistance:

  • Over-prescription of antibiotics. This includes prescribing many potent drugs to a patient and this could be due to seeking medical attention in different hospitals or clinics without giving adequate history of previous treatment.
  • Overusing antibiotics in the meat supply chain. More than 50% of all antibiotics globally are used in the meat supply chain to prevent rather than treat infections, to promote rapid growth and weight gain.
  • Failure of patients to finish their treatment. Bacteria are able to mutate in such a way as to avoid being destroyed by the drug since they gotten to know how the antibiotic works.
  • Poor control of infections in hospitals and clinics. Patients admitted in hospital have a risk of developing hospital-acquired infections, some of are caused by strains of resistant bacteria such as Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
  • Failure to develop new antibiotics. Bacteria are constantly undergoing mutation and failure to develop new antibiotics leads to development of resistant strains.
  • Poor sanitation and hygiene. This results in infections that require treatment with antibiotics and eventually lead to emergence of resistant strains of bacteria that fail to respond to antibiotics used to treat them.

Antibiotic resistance is a global problem. The following are ways to eradicate this scourge:

  • Accounting for all the antibiotic used. This applies to both healthcare providers and farmers. With this, healthcare providers and farmers will avoid irrational use of antibiotics.
  • Adoption of a policy that fosters protection of human health by restriction of non-therapeutic use of antibiotics in livestock.
  • Practicing proper hygiene by washing hands thoroughly and handling food hygienically decreases the risk of getting food-borne illnesses hence antibiotics for treatment may not be needed frequently.
  • Offering civic education to the people through mass media can come in handy in the eradication of antibiotic resistance. Lack of knowledge on the dangers of drug abuse such as use of non-prescription medication has contributed immensely to antibiotic resistance. Plato said ignorance is the root and stem of all evil. Therefore, educating the masses on antibiotic resistance and how to deal with it can greatly help eradicate this problem.
  • Adequate training of healthcare professionals on the use of antibiotics. Healthcare professionals are in charge of dispensing medication to patients and the general population. With adequate training, healthcare professionals should uphold their professionalism and exercise integrity at all times.

Next time you think of self-medication or not finishing your treatment remember you could be developing superbugs that will be harmful to you and others as well. Eradication of antibiotic resistance begins with YOU!

Nalianya Emma
Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.

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AMR Week. Webinar Session in Collaboration with International Pharmaceutical Students’ Federation AFRO Region.

In line with Antimicrobial Resistance awareness week scheduled for 13th to 19th November, Federation of African Medical Students’ Associations (FAMSA) in partnership with International Pharmaceutical Students’ Federation (IPSF) AfRO region is hosting webinar under the theme “Antimicrobial Resistance a global call to Healthcare professionals”

Time: November 16th from 6pm to 8pm (GMT+0).

Speaker: Dr K.O Buabeng.

So fix a reminder and join the meeting via:

Tell your friend to tell a friend to not miss it.

Together we can know more to end this scourge in Africa!!!

FAMSA……Towards the improvement of health in Africa

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The Federation of African Medical Students’ Associations hereby opens a call for application for the position of Chairperson, Standing Committee on Publications (SCOPUB).

Details of the role of this position can be found here  

How do you apply?

– You must send your application to famsaarchives@gmail.com before 20th October 11:59pm GMT.

– Only Non-Nigerian African medical students are eligible.

– Send the following documents to famssarchives@gmail.com before 20th October 11:59pm GMT:

  1. Résumé
  2. Cover letter (Not longer than 1 page)
  3. Plan of Action
  4. Letter from your MSA president
  5. Evidence of studentship


Incomplete applications will not be considered. If you have any questions regarding the application process, please feel free to email us at famsaarchives@gmail.com

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⁠⁠⁠🌍 Federation of African Medical Students’ Associations (FAMSA)🌍


31st General Assembly

Date 🗓 : 13th-17th September, 2017.

Venue 🏫 : Niger Delta University, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

This historic event is an annual platform where medical students from over 30 African countries come together to discuss health issues pertaining to Africa.

🛑 Scientific Seminars/Lectures
⚫ Inter medical school Quiz
🔵 Sight seeing
✳ Native Dinner
🌐 General Election

➡ Nigerian: $16
➡ Foreign : $32

It promises to be enlightening, fun and adventurous. We look forward to your arrival at Yenagoa!
FAMSA….Towards the improvement of health in Africa

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The study, published in the Public Library of Science (PLOS) Journal of Medicine, found that globally, the prevalence of depression was 4.4 per cent, while Afghanistan and the Palestinian territories were amongst the most depressed states.

According to the research, depressive orders are second only to lower respiratory infections when it comes to inflicting the most years of disability on people throughout the world.

Clinical depression is defined as involving at least one major episode in which the affected individual experiences a depressed mood almost all day, every day for at least two weeks.

The researchers used data on the prevalence, incidence, remission rates and duration of depression and dysthymia (a milder, chronic form of depression that lasts for at least two years), and on the excess deaths caused by these disorders from published articles.

They found that the prevalence of depression for women was almost twice as high than it was for men.

More than five per cent of people in the Middle East, North Africa, Eastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean have depression, the researchers found.

However, it is important to note the research was based on the rate at which people were diagnosed with clinical depression, rather than actual rates of depression.

Maymunah Yusuf Kadiri a consultant Neuro Psychiatrist and Psychotherapist, Medical Director at pinnacle medical service, in an interview with Kemi Ajumobi of Business day newspaper, Nigeria. Depression affects people of all ages, from all walks of life, in all countries. It causes mental anguish and impacts on people’s ability to carry out even the simplest everyday tasks, with sometimes devastating consequences for relationships with family and friends and the ability to earn a living. At worst, depression can lead to suicide, now the second leading cause of death among 15-29-year olds. When mild, people can be treated without medicines but when depression is moderate or severe they may need medication and professional talking treatments. The risk of becoming depressed is increased by poverty, unemployment, life events such as the death of a loved one or a relationship break-up, financial challenges, physical illness, abuse-physical, sexual, emotional and drug, conflicts, economic instability and recession.

There can’t be a better time to spring into action than now when there is an upsurge of depression around the world. At a time where conflicts are daily arising among nations and communities causing economic instability and recession making life more difficult for people especially in Africa and in the Middle East.

According to Prof. Lourens Schlebusch, there are at least 23 suicides a day in South Africa – which may be underestimated due to the stigma involved in suicide. However, data on suicides and other unintentional injury deaths are not systematically tracked by any agency in the country making accurate statistics hard to come by, says SA’s largest mental health NGO, the South African Depression and Anxiety Group (SADAG).

Depression is the most prevalent mental illness in the developing world. In Africa, it’s devastating: 66 million women are suffering. The great majority have no medical services to turn to for help–strong minds.org. If this number of our women ( clinically diagnosed alone)are suffering from severe depressions in a continent Where most women are housewife’s, how will they be able to Take adequate care of our children emotionally. I hope we are not breeding a “depressed future generation”.

From being some of the happiest people on earth, Nigerians have slumped to the rank of the most depressed in Africa. This was the conclusion contained in the latest figures released by the World Health Organisation (WHO), which show that Nigeria has 7,079,815 sufferers of depression, that is 3.9 per cent of the population.

Also, 4,894,557 Nigerians, that is 2.7 per cent of the population, suffer anxiety disorders. The country is closely followed by Ethiopia with 4,480,113 sufferers, that is 4.7 per cent of her population; Democratic Republic of Congo with 2,871,309 sufferers (3.8 per cent); South Africa with 2,402,230 sufferers (4.6 per cent); and Tanzania with 2,138,939 sufferers, that is 4.1 per cent. Seychelles has the lowest number of depressed persons with just 3,722 that is 4.0 percent

One thing about depression is that you can’t sufficiently know how it feels and what debilitating impact it Can have until one goes through depression. Unlike myriads of other clinical illness, it can’t be readily diagnosed and can even be easily missed. It’s like a smothering fire. It gradually and quietly eats away the sufferer’s life. Most of the time, their health parameters may even be normal yet there’s this huge sore in their lives which can’t be picked by any new generation medical diagnostic kit.

Depression is pilfering our lives and future; let’s curb it.


5th year medical student,
University of Ibadan,
Oyo state, Nigeria.



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On Wednesday 8th October 2014; my re-sit results were out and I failed. I had to re-do my 5th year of medical training. Where do I start? How do I get over this? ‘‘One day at a time….″ I told myself.

As the days turned into weeks, I felt my strength literally leave me. I was going through a downward spiral of mental anguish, unable to carry out even the simplest of tasks; I slept a lot, thought a lot but ate little. Then I figured; I was depressed.

It was difficult, oh yes, it was! Some days, I woke up with the world on my shoulders, some other days, I didn’t just care. I saw myself as a failure, a disappointment to my parents, my relatives, my friends and above all, myself.

I knew I had to act fast, to stop the “haemorrhage”, so i got to my feet and picked myself up again. I began to talk to other medical students who had repeated, I listened to motivational talks and I prayed a lot. Thank God it helped, it wasn’t all rosy but I got better, I felt better…. “All is well that ends well…” I said to myself.

Then it hit me, what about the “other medical students” who had experienced or will experience what I just went through? What about people from other walks of life?  How did or do they cope? Do they know they are depressed? Do they get the help they actually need? Then I concluded; depression is real.

Depression is an illness characterised by persistent sadness and a loss of interest in activities that you normally enjoy, accompanied by an inability to carryout daily activities for at least two weeks (WHO). It affects people of all ages, from all walks of life and in all countries, yes even Cameroon, my country.

It can be long lasting or recurrent, substantially impairing a person’s ability to function at work or school, or cope with daily life. At its most severe, depression can lead to suicide.

According to WHO, depression is the second leading cause of death among 15 -29 year olds.

When mild, depression can be treated without medications but when moderate or severe, people may need medications and professional involvement treatments.

Depression often starts at a young age. It affects women more than men, and unemployed people are also at high risk.

It can affect anyone, no matter your social status. It can be caused by poverty, life events such as the death of a loved one, a relationship break-up, physical illness, and the list goes on and on.

Many of life’s experiences can predispose to depression:

How do you carter for your wife and kids when you just lost your job?

What do you do when you spend several years, looking for a job, but end up sitting at home with your degree in your pocket?

How do you carry on when you suddenly lose a loved one to the cold hands of death or a long term relationship which you cherished so dearly goes to waste?

When faced with such situations, we often feel worthless, useless and helpless. We then use unorthodox methods to mask or alleviate our pain (alcohol, marijuana, etc).

Don’t drown yourself in alcohol, don’t smoke that cigarette. It won’t help.

Find someone you trust; a relative, a friend, a spouse, or a medical professional and talk about it. I did so and it helped. You don’t have to do it all alone. Life is already hard as it is.

Depression is everywhere in our communities; unfortunately, it often goes unrecognized and is frequently attributed to “witch craft″. There’s also very little information available on the subject matter.

Non – specialists can reliably diagnose and treat depression as part of primary health care. Specialist care is needed for a small proportion of people with complicated depression or those who do not respond to first-line treatment.

Depression is treatable; we all have a role to play;

  • The governments health sector should organize awareness campaigns to educate the public on the subject matter.
  • Health care givers should empower themselves through workshops to be able to properly diagnose depression at its embryonic stage.
  • We should all be there for our loved ones when they are feeling down, let’s listen to them keenly, let’s talk with them, let’s let them know that they are not alone. This form of therapy is cheap, effective, and has no side effects.

Depression is more common than we think. Let’s pay attention, let’s talk…


7TH Year medical student
Faculty of Health Sciences University of Buea,



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End of the year thoughts to all beautiful FAMSAites and acquaintances all over the world

2016 has been a positively eventful year for us all in FAMSA (although with hurdles), loaded with lots of programs, conferences and awareness. Just as our constitution stated … play a significant role in improvement of the health of African people and the problems of African society in as much as they fall within the purview of medicine and the realization… we have played our role and made our impact at various levels. This could be seen in our vast Social media Campaigns, website upgrade, our Antibiotics awareness week Campaigns, world Hepatitis Day Campaign, world blood Donor Day campaign and various outreaches, talks/symposia and events by our standing committees (SCOHE, SCOPUB, SCOPA, SCOMER and SCOPE) in the different member country of the association.

Therefore, as 2016 comes to an end in grand style and we move into the New Year, below are the thoughts of FAMSA Executives (2016/2017 Administration) to you for the year;

“Let’s raise our toast to yesterday’s achievements and tomorrow’s brighter future. Happy New Year FAMSAites”.

Njang M. Emmanuel,
FAMSA President


“As we come to the end of this year 2016, I want to appreciate everyone that participated or contributed in one way or the other to achieve the goal of “our FAMSA” towards the improvement of health in Africa. I pray that we all will experience a fruitful 2017 as we continue to work hard and work together to make our continent a healthy place. Merry Christmas and Happy New Year”.

ONAGA, Zita Ugochukwu,
Administrator, FAMSA Administrator


“We can boldly say it’s been a fruitful and blessed year; one which we have created a massive awareness, had more schools involved in FAMSA’s activities and hosted a regional meeting In the University of Capecoast, Ghana. I can say we have found and implemented purpose.

We are the voice of Africa; we are the future of Africa’s health system, we are the next and most important indication of how the health system would look like in years to come. The 31st  FAMSA General Assembly is to hold in March, 2017 at the Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria and it promises to be explosive. Let’s come around and let’s meet each other. Myself and my team wishes you a Merry Christmas and Happy New Year ahead”.

Dr. Oyegbile Olajide
West Africa Regional Coordinator, FAMSA


As 2016 comes to an end, let’s take some time out to reflect on what an awesome or not so awesome year it was. Let’s make big changes based on these reflections and let’s hope for a beautiful 2017. To every FAMSAite out there, let’s keep on breaking boundaries and let’s be the change we want in Africa. Here’s to greater things in the year 2017! Merry Christmas and Happy New Year beautiful people!

OMIYE, Jesutofunmi Adesanmi
Director of Media Externa, FAMSA


2016 has come and gone, we forge ahead more powerfully into 2017 to do more exploit. On behalf of all Members of the Standing Committee of Publications (SCOPUB), Director of External Media (Mr. Omiye Jesutofunmi), all Regional Coordinators, all FAMSA Board Executives and other Standing Committees… We want to wish you the best of the year to come and we hope to see and have more of you in our various FAMSA activities for the year. And don’t forget to visit and join our different social media pages.

Compiled by
Agoyi M. Oluwakemisola
Chairperson, SCOPUB – FAMSA

Email: oluwakemisolaagoyi@gmail.com
Email: famsaarchives@gmail.com
Website: famsanet.org
Twitter: @famsa2
Instagram: Official_FAMSA
Facebook: Federation of African Medical students’ Associations (FAMSA)


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World’s ANTIBIOTICS AWARENESS WEEK (Nov 14 – 20): Stop Antibiotics Misuse


Antibiotics have transformed medicine and saved millions of lives. This wonderful invention – which started with the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928 – has made many successful surgeries possible and put Infections under control. But the tragedy is; antibiotics are about to be rendered useless because of me and you – our adamant, inconsistent nature, our misappropriate use of antibiotics.

Benefits of antibiotics

Apart from saving people’s lives, antibiotics have also played crucial role in achieving major advances in medicine and surgery such as successfully preventing and treating infections in individuals receiving chemotherapy and people with acute and chronic diseases.

People in the US were expected to live for only 56.4years old in 1920, now however the US average life span is 80 years. Antibiotics have helped to extend expected life spans by changing the outcome of infections in general. It has done the same in developing countries like Nigeria where sanitation is still poor and has drastically decreased morbidity and mortality caused by food borne and poverty related infections.

Our Present situation

Bacteria resistance has evolved over the years, from penicillin resistance to methicillin resistance and now vancomycin resistance, the newer strains of the resistant bacteria are getting stronger and stronger as the new drugs being developed against them are getting stronger and stronger.

Penicillin resistant bacteria à Methicillin Resistance Staph. Aureus (MRSA) à Vancomycin Resistant Strains.

Since all they do is, seek refuge in our blood and make friends with these drugs we create to terminate them. Our usual practice of just taking the first and second dose of antibiotics prescribed to us, when we start seeing the physical manifestation of the drugs such as yellow coloured, drug smelling urine or our boil shrinking, is killing. As we only give room to the bacteria left from the good concentration urinated out of our body system to adapt to the lower toxicity of the drugs in our body.

The most alarming and hurtful part is that, the learned ones and medical oriented individuals partake in these practice even medical students. And we go about clinical coats, screaming in the market place, stop drug abuse, stop drug abuse!! This we do mostly under the umbrella of an association or a philanthropic group, after which we return to our various homes and continue the bad practice. Even among our relatives, we find this misuse and we do nothing to stop it. But then, it was discovered that this predicament is worldwide which brings us to the Question what is “misuse”? Or for the sake of appropriateness¸ “what are the causes of our antibiotic resistance crises”?


Overuse of drugs started way back, few years after penicillin – the first antibiotics –was invented, then, Sir Alexander Fleming raised an alarm but no one listened to him. An era of drug overuse clearly drives the evolution of drug resistance. The Bacteria, like every other living thing, inherit genes from their “parents”, get modified overtime and they build resistance to these drugs.

Despite warnings, antibiotics are overprescribed worldwide and this is worsened by the fact that Antibiotics are sold in many countries unregulated as OTC (Over The Counter drugs) without proper prescription. So people can freely buy and use any form of antibiotics based on discretion. And when even prescribed, studies have shown that treatment indication – choice of agent, duration of antibiotic therapy – Is incorrect in 30% to 50% of cases. In Addition, 30% to 60% of the antibiotics prescribed in intensive care units have been found to be unnecessary, inappropriate or suboptimal.

Another way of overuse is when we use them extensively for livestock. Treating livestock with antimicrobials is said to improve the overall health of the animals, producing larger yields and a higher quality the products. The antibiotics used in livestock are consumed by humans when they consume food and resistance starts to set in. All these are not so much under control, I mean, patients have to be treated and livestock have to be bred. But then, the next form of misuse which is underuse/incomplete doses and self-overuse is what is most important here in our environment today.

Incomplete doses/Under use

This is so rampart, there wouldn’t be need to emphasize. Drugs are supposed to be used adequately, not too much and too little. When we don’t complete our doses, and the blood concentration supposed to cause adequate therapeutic effect isn’t optimal, only some of the bacteria get eliminated while the others supposed to be susceptible start to build up resistance against the drug and then produce offspring that are also resistant.

And what makes the case worse is the Lack of new drug development by the pharmaceutical industries due to reduced economy incentives and challenging regulatory requirements and approval.

Consequences of Antibiotics Misuse

Antibiotics resistant infections are already widely spread across the globe. Many public health organizations have described the rapid emergency of resistant bacteria as a crisis or nightmare scenario that could have catastrophic consequences. CDC, WHO institute of medicine, federal interagency task forces have declared resistant bacteria as a substantial treat to the entire globe.

Here is fact; MRSAs kills more American each year than HIV/AIDS, Parkinson’s disease, emphysema and homicide put together. Now, Vancomycin which is supposed to be our refuge drug is no longer as effective because Vancomycin resistant enterococci and so many other additional pathogens are developing resistance to many common antibiotics.

In conclusion, rapidly emerging resistance bacteria threaten the extraordinary health benefits that have been achieved with antibiotics in time past. This crisis is global, reflecting the underuse and overuse of these drugs and the lack of development of new antibiotic agents by pharmaceutical companies to address the challenge. Now, to achieve a non-resistant environment for pathogens, we need to think on the following:

What should be done and is within our power to avoid this killing resistance?

Should antibiotics no longer be sold OTC? OR Should we keep campaigning to people to stop the misuse?


You can drop your own ideas on our social media (twitter) using the #StopAntibioticMisuse

Follow us on twitter @FAMSA2, Facebook “FAMSA”, Instagram “Official_Famsa” or visit our website www.famsanet.org


Karolinska Institute Investidators in Sweeden
CDC, World Health Organisation


Hameed Yussuf,
General Secretary,
Standing Committee on Publication (SCOPUB-FAMSA 2016/2017)


Agoyi Mary Oluwakemisola,
Chairman, Standing Committee on Publication (FAMSA 2016/2017),

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ABC’s of Antibiotic Resistance

I vividly remember being well beaten for being a destructive and stubborn kid. And the more I was beaten, the less I felt the pains till it reached the moment I felt no pains but irritations when I was beaten. I guess my pain receptors were dead. I am sure present day bacteria would tell a similar story in regards to antibiotics for they have been exposed to all sorts and grown immune to them rendering treatment ineffective.

Antibiotic is the medical term to describe drugs used in treating diseases caused by bacteria. They play a very important role in reducing the presence and burden of diseases such as pneumonia, cholera, TB and sexually transmittable diseases like gonorrhea (call them communicable diseases) which are very much alive and active in our communities. With such as crisis like antibiotic resistance, treating people with HIV/AIDS would be difficult.

We cannot blame the bacteria for being resistant to antibiotics because adaptability is a natural process for them. The bulk of the blame falls on you and maybe me. Our attitude and habits towards drugs are contributing factors: the use of fake and counterfeit medicines from road side doctors and mobile pharmacies; poor prescription for health workers; and above all, stubbornness on your part to comply with treatment. Yes you! How often do you finish your treatment, especially for typhoid?

We never like to take blames no matter how obvious it might be, so we push it onto some other person. Thank goodness we have the government who would always carry the blame. We could blame it on government for the weak medical regulatory capacity and the circulation of substandard (counterfeit) drugs, or the weak laboratory capacity on antibiotic testing and reporting and lack of essential reagents and consumables. We could also blame government for the limited quality assurance and control; protocol or lack of antibiotic surveillance strategies. But you know if we did just the simple things like complying with treatment, we would not be facing most of these challenges right?

And hey, antibiotic resistant is NOT an African issue, it is thriving in all nations and communities just like ours. And did you also know that the famous gonorrhea would soon become resistant to all lines of treatment rendering it untreatable. Here is what would happen if gonorrhea is untreatable:

  • Increased rates of infertility,
  • Increased rates of pregnancy complications including miscarriages,
  • Blindness of new births
  • And you would hate sex and curse God for creating it.

But wait a moment, what is Antibiotic Resistance? Antibiotic resistance is the household name for Antimicrobial resistance which is resistance of microorganisms like; bacteria, fungi, viruses and malaria parasites to a drug that used to effective infections caused by these microorganisms. Antibiotic resistance is specific to bacteria while antimicrobial resistance covers all microorganisms including bacteria. Antimicrobial resistance kills people and slows the control and eradication of infectious diseases like malaria, syphilis, yellow fever and cholera without leaving out the famous gonorrhea. When infections become difficult to treat, new medications are introduced marking cost of treatment very expensive for many to afford and they end up dying.

This whole thing of antibiotic resistance is more complex than we think it is. It is influenced by many interconnected factors and as such, single isolated interventions have very little impact. Coordinated action is needed to minimize emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

According to the WHO, all parties (individuals, health workers and pharmacies, government and pharmaceutical industries) can help in reducing antibiotic resistance and here is how;

  • Individuals;
    1. Wash our hands and avoid close contact with sick people to prevent bacterial and viral transmissions.
    2. Get vaccinated and keep vaccinated up to date.
    3. Using antimicrobial drugs only when prescribed by a certified health professional
    4. Complete the full treatment course
    5. Never share antimicrobial drugs with others or use leftover prescriptions.
  • Health workers and pharmacists can help by;
    1. Enhancing infection prevention and control in hospitals and clinics.
    2. Only prescribing and dispensing antibiotics which are truly needed,
    3. Prescribing and dispensing the right antimicrobial drugs to treat the illness.
  • Government can help by
    1. Improving monitoring around the extent and cause of resistance.
    2. Strengthening infection control and prevention.
    3. Promoting and regulating appropriate use of medicines.
    4. Making information widely available on the impact of antimicrobial resistance and how the public and health professionals can play their part.
    5. Recognizing and rewarding innovation and development of new treatment options and other tools.
  • Scientists and pharmaceutical industry can help by
    1. Fostering innovation, research and development of new vaccines, diagnostic tools and treatment options.

So now you have completed a 60 hours medical/pharmaceutical course in just 5 minutes. And with such knowledge we are counting on you to help conquer bacteria through the proper use of antibiotics.

You don’t want to go without watching this interesting video by Dr Susan Enjema on Antibiotics Resistance.

Nkwain Carlson.

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